Влияние свойств электронного текста на эффективность и результативность чтения

Литературный обзор

Авторы

  • Александр Евгеньевич Войскунский Московский государственный университет им. М. В. Ломоносова https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5213-1366
  • Максим Юрьевич Солодов Московский государственный университет им. М. В. Ломоносова https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5447-5541

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33910/2686-9527-2020-2-2-134-142

Ключевые слова:

гипертекст, чтение электронного текста, чтение с экрана, свойства текста

Аннотация

С проникновением в нашу жизнь информационных технологий всё больше меняется наша деятельность: трудовая, учебная и т. д. В новых реалиях особое место занимают технологии работы с электронным текстом. Такой текст сильно меняет то, как мы читаем, ищем информацию, перелистываем страницы. Кроме этого, мы начинаем совместно работать с текстом — не только читать, но и писать. Поэтому необходимо изучать новые технологии в науке вообще и в психологии в частности.

Специфика чтения с электронных носителей исследуется с момента появления таковых. Чтению бумажного текста противопоставляются не только экраны как способы представления информации, но и гипертекст, имеющий особую структуру. Можно выделить две группы факторов, влияющих на процесс чтения: первая связана с теми или иными свойствами текста, а вторая — с индивидуальными психологическими особенностями и свойствами читателей. В данной работе мы осветим влияние первой группы факторов. С этой точки зрения на процесс чтения влияют такие особенности работы с экраном, как размер, стиль и цвет шрифта, яркость и размер экрана, способы навигации и их удобство для читателя. Считается, что чтение электронного и традиционного текста отличается по таким параметрам, как скорость, точность, внимание, особенности навигации и время, в течение которого читатель устает работать с текстом. Хотя по этим параметрам электронный текст обычно проигрывает бумажному, но обладает большей гибкостью и возможностью настройки под конкретные задачи. Например, там, где бумажный текст нужно читать целиком, в электронном можно воспользоваться автоматическим поиском. Значительную роль играет также структура электронного текста, а также наличие в нем нетекстовой информации и гиперссылок. Здесь результаты исследований оказываются неоднозначны: скорее всего, на более высоких уровнях когнитивных процессов значение свойств текста теряет свое непосредственное влияние на процесс чтения и опосредуется индивидуальными психологическими свойствами и особенностями.

Библиографические ссылки

Ackerman, R., Lauterman, T. (2012) Taking reading comprehension exams on screen or on paper? A metacognitive analysis of learning texts under time pressure. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1816–1828. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.04.023 (In English)

Askwall, S. (1985) Computer supported reading vs reading text on paper: A comparison of two reading situations. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 425–439. DOI: 10.1016/S0020-7373(85)80048-1 (In English)

Balcytiene, A. (1999) Exploring individual processes of knowledge construction with hypertext. Instructional Science, vol. 27, no. 3/4, pp. 303–328. DOI: 10.1023/A:1003118900441 (In English)

Barab, S. A., Young, M. F., Wang, J. (1999) The effects of navigational and generative activities in hypertext learning on problem solving and comprehension. International Journal of Instructional Media, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 283–309. (In English)

Baron, L., Tague-Sutcliffe, J., Kinnucan, M. T., Carey, T. (1996) Labeled, typed links as cues when reading hypertext documents. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 896–908. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(199612)47:12<896::AID-ASI3>3.0.CO;2-Y (In English)

Beishuizen, J., Jesdijk, E. S., Zanting, A. (1996) Using hypertext for studying and information search. Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 289–316. DOI: 10.2190/F643-J6UW-QCFN-0JMU (In English)

Beymer, D., Orton, P. Z., Russell, D. M. (2007) An eye tracking study of how font size and type influence online reading. In: C. Baranauskas, P. Palanque, J. Abascal, S. D. J. Barbosa (eds.). Human-Computer Interaction — INTERACT 2007. 11th IFIP TC 13 International Conference Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 10–14, 2007 Proceedings, Part II. Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 456–460. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-74800-7_41 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 4663). (In English)

Britt, M. A., Rouet, J.-F., Perfetti, C. A. (1996) Using hypertext to study and reason about historical evidence. In: J.-F. Rouet, J. J. Levonen, A. Dillon et al. (eds.). Hypertext and cognition. New York: Routledge, pp. 43–72. (In English)

Burmistrov, I., Zlokazova, T., Ishmuratova, I., Semenova, M. (2016) Legibility of light and ultra-light fonts: Eyetracking study. In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction — NordiCHI’16. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.1145/2971485.2996745 (In English)

Calisir, F., Gurel, Z. (2003) Influence of text structure and prior knowledge of the learner on reading comprehension, browsing and perceived control. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 135–145. DOI: 10.1016/S0747-5632(02)00058-4 (In English)

Campbell, C. S., Maglio, P. P. (1999) Facilitating navigation in information spaces: Road-signs on the World Wide Web. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 309–327. DOI: 10.1006/IJHC.1998.0246 (In English)

Creed, A., Dennis, I., Newstead, S. (1987) Proof-reading on VDUs. Behaviour & Information Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3–13. DOI: 10.1080/01449298708901814 (In English)

Cress, U., Knabel, O. B. (2003). Previews in hypertexts: effects on navigation and knowledge acquisition. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 517–527. DOI: 10.1046/j.0266-4909.2003.00054.x (In English)

Cushman, W. H. (1986) Reading from microfiche, a VDT, and the printed page: Subjective fatigue and performance. Human Factors, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 63–73. DOI: 10.1177/001872088602800107 (In English)

Dee-Lucas, D., Larkin, J. H. (1999) Hypertext segmentation and goal compatibility: Effects on study strategies and learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 279–313. (In English)

DeStefano, D., LeFevre, J.-A. (2007) Cognitive load in hypertext reading: A review. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1616–1641. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2005.08.012 (In English)

Dias, P., Gomes, M. J., Correia, A. P. (1999) Disorientation in hypermedia environments: Mechanisms to support navigation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 93–117. DOI: 10.2190/G8C5-342VDJX3-Q53F (In English)

Dillon, A. (1992) Reading form paper versus screens: A critical review of the empirical literature. Ergonomics, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1297–1326. DOI: 10.1080/00140139208967394 (In English)

Dyson, M. C. (2004) How physical text layout affects reading from screen. Behaviour and Information Technology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 377–393. DOI: 10.1080/01449290410001715714 (In English)

Edwards, D. M., Hardman, L. (1999) Lost in hyperspace: Cognitive mapping and navigation in a hypertext environment. In: R. McAleese (ed.). Hypertext: Theory into practice. Exeter: Intellect Books; School of Art and Design Earl Richards Road North, pp. 90–105. (In English)

Egan, D. E., Remde, J. R., Landauer, T. K. et al. (1989) Behavioral evaluation and analysis of a hypertext browser. ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, vol. 20, no. SI, pp. 205–210. DOI: 10.1145/67449.67490 (In English)

Eveland, W. P., Cortese, J. (2004) How web site organization influences free recall, factual knowledge, and knowledge structure density. Human Communication Research, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 208–233. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2004.tb00731.x (In English)

Glanzer, M., Dorfman, D., Kaplan, B. (1981) Short-term storage in the processing of text. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 656–670. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5371(81)90229-2 (In English)

Glanzer, M., Fischer, B., Dorfman, D. (1984) Short-term storage in reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 467–486. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5371(84)90300-1 (In English)

Gordon, S., Gustavel, J., Moore, J., Hankey, J. (1988) The effects of hypertext on reader knowledge representation. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Annual Meeting, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 296–300. DOI: 10.1177/154193128803200512 (In English)

Gould, J. D., Grischkowsky, N. (1984) Doing the same work with hard copy and with cathode-ray tube (CRT) computer terminals. Human Factors, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 323–337. DOI: 10.1177%2F001872088402600308 (In English)

Graesser, A. C., McNamara, D. S. (2011) Computational analyses of multilevel discourse comprehension. Topics in Cognitive Science, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 371–398. DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01081.x (In English)

Hofman, R., van Oostendorp, H. (1999) Cognitive effects of a structural overview in a hypertext. British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 129–140. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8535.00101 (In English)

Jacobson, M. J., Spiro, R. J. (1995) Hypertext learning environments, cognitive flexibility, and the transfer of complex knowledge: An empirical investigation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 301–333. DOI: 10.2190/4T1B-HBP0-3F7E-J4PN (In English)

Jonassen D. H., Wang, Sh. (1993) Acquiring structural knowledge. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–8. (In English)

Karr, N. (2012) Dummy: What the Internet is doing with our brains. Saint Petersburg: BestBusinessBooks Publ., 256 p. (In Russian)

Kintsch, W., Mangalath, P. (2011) The construction of meaning. Topics in Cognitive Science, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 346–370. DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01107.x (In English)

Li, L. Y., Chen, G. D., Yang, S. J. (2013) Construction of cognitive maps to improve e-book reading and navigation. Computers and Education, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 32–39. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.07.010 (In English)

Lorch, R. F. (1993) Integration of topic and subordinate information during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1071–1081. DOI: 10.1037/0278-7393.19.5.1071 (In English)

McDonald, S., Stevenson, R. J. (1998) Effects of text structure and prior knowledge of the learner on navigation in hypertext. Human Factors, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 18–27. DOI: 10.1518/001872098779480541 (In English)

McKnight, C., Dillon, A., Richardson, J. (1990) A comparison of linear and hypertext formats in information retrieval. In: R. McAleese, C. Green (eds.). Hypertext: State of the art. Oxford: Intellect, pp. 10–19. (In English)

Miall, D. S., Dobson, T. (2001) Reading hypertext and the experience of literature. Journal of Digital Information, vol. 2, no. 1. [Online]. Available at: https://journals.tdl.org/jodi/index.php/jodi/article/view/35/37 (accessed 25.05.2020). (In English)

Morineau, T., Blanche, C., Tobin, L., Gueguen, N. (2005) The emergence of the contextual role of the e-book in cognitive processes through an ecological and functional analysis. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 329–348. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2004.10.002 (In English)

Muter, P., Latremouille, S. A., Treurniet, W. C. et al. (1982) Extended reading of continuous text on television screens. Human Factors, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 501–508. DOI: 10.1177%2F001872088202400501 (In English)

Naumann, J. (2015) A model of online reading engagement: Linking engagement, navigation, and performance in digital reading. Computers in Human Behavior, no. 53, pp. 263–277. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.051 (In English)

Niederhauser, D. S., Reynolds, R. E., Salmen, D. J., Skolmoski, P. (2000) The influence of cognitive load on learning from hypertext. Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 237–255. DOI: 10.2190/81BGRPDJ-9FA0-Q7PA (In English)

Patterson, N. G. (2000) Hypertext and the changing roles of readers. English Journal, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 74–80. DOI: 10.2307/821221 (In English)

Plass, J. L., Chun, D. M., Mayer, R. E., Leutner, D. (2003) Cognitive load in reading a foreign language text with multimedia aids and the influence of verbal and spatial abilities. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 221–243. DOI: 10.1016/S0747-5632(02)00015-8 (In English)

Potelle, H., Rouet, J.-F. (2003) Effects of content representation and readers’ prior knowledge on the comprehension of hypertext. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 327–345. DOI: 10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00016-8 (In English)

Rothkopf, E. Z. (1971) Incidental memory for location of information in text. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 608–613. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5371(71)80066-X (In English)

Shapiro, A. M. (1999) The relevance of hierarchies to learning biology from hypertext. Journal of the Learning Sciences, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 215–243. DOI: 10.1207/s15327809jls0802_2 (In English)

Shapiro, A., Niederhauser, D. (2004) Learning from hypertext: Research issues and findings. In: D. H. Jonassen (ed.). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 605–620. (In English)

Smith, J. (1996) What’s all this hype about hypertext? Teaching literature with George P. Landow’s The Dickens Web. Computers and the Humanities, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 121–129. DOI: 10.1007/BF00419788 (In English)

Voiskunskij, A. E. (2017) Internet kak prostranstvo poznaniya: psikhologicheskie aspekty [The Internet as a space of knowledge: Psychological aspects]. Sovremennaya zarubezhnaya psikhologiya — Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 72–86. (In Russian)

Wenger, M. J., Payne, D. G. (1996) Comprehension and retention of nonlinear text: Considerations of working memory and material-appropriate processing. The American Journal of Psychology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 93–130. DOI: 10.2307/1422929 (In English)

Wright, P., Likorish, A. (1983) Proof-reading texts on screen and paper. Behaviour & Information Technology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 227–235. DOI: 10.1080/01449298308914479 (In English)

Zhao, Z., O’Shea, T., Fung, P. (1994) The effects of visible link-types on learning in the hypertext environment. Computers in the Schools, vol. 10, no. 3–4, pp. 353–370. DOI: 10.1300/J025v10n03_07 (In English)

Опубликован

2020-10-06

Выпуск

Раздел

Статьи