Феномен гендерного неравенства как фактор карьерного капитала женщины: постановка проблемы

Ключевые слова: гендерное неравенство, социальные стратегии, карьерный капитал, работающие женщины, успех, актуализирующая гендер организация

Аннотация

Карьера женщины начинается с выбора профессионального пути и продолжается непрерывным образовательным процессом, однако ее успешности может препятствовать гендерная асимметрия. Несмотря на изменения условий труда, юридических норм и социальной политики, гендерный разрыв стабильно воспроизводится, приводя к «заторможенному прогрессу». В результате анализа современной литературы авторы пришли к выводу, что поиск тонких и устойчивых механизмов, ответственных за воспроизведение гендерного неравенства в российских компаниях, будет наиболее продуктивным, если будет опираться на следующие теоретические концепции на: 1) подход «Организация, актуализирующая гендер» («gendered organization»), имеющий принципиальные отличия от других подходов и позволяющий анализировать гендерное неравенство на структурном и нормативном уровнях; 2) концепции карьерного капитала и социального капитала, благодаря которым становится возможно синтезировать индивидуальный и структурный уровни анализа; 3) модели «креативной организации» и исследования последствий гендерного неравенства для развития как отдельной работающей женщины, так и организации в целом. Изучение гендерного неравенства в соответствии с актуальными подходами в России практически не проводится, исследователи опираются на «ролевой подход», устаревший с точки зрения мировой науки. Теоретический анализ позволил также сформулировать две гипотезы для дальнейшей эмпирической проверки: 1 — работающая женщина включает гендер в признаки важных для продвижения в карьере качеств, и 2 — организация воспринимается как менее креативная, если работники отмечают в ней признаки гендерного неравенства. Предполагается, что социально-психологическая модель факторов успешности работающей женщины должна включать в себя, с одной стороны, организационный контекст (неформальную структуру, нормы и пр.), а с другой стороны — индивидуальные социальные стратегии (в том числе, стратегии нивелирования гендерного неравенства с привлечением карьерного капитала). Приводятся основания для вывода: ключевыми механизмами воспроизведения гендерного неравенства будут механизмы, связанные с формированием социального капитала и остающиеся на данный момент малоизученными.

Литература

ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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World Bank Group. (2017) World Development Indicators 2017. Washington, DC. World Bank [online]. Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/26447 (accessed 15.01.2019).

Опубликован
2019-06-21
Раздел
Статьи